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Materials Science for Dentistry (9th Edition)

About the Author
Dr Brian W. Darvell DSc CChem CSci FRSC FIM FSS FADM is former Reader in Dental Materials Science at The University of Hong Kong, China.

Mechanical testing

Initial ideas. The equations of deformation. Plastic deformation. Work of deformation. Modelling. Strength testing. Griffith’s law. Hardness. Dynamic behaviour. Impact. Creep. Fatigue. Elastic moduli. Comparative properties. Ideality.

Gypsum materials
Basic reactions. Mixing liquid. Dental products. Mixing proportions. Setting dimensional change. Setting reaction. Modifiers. Porosity. Wet or dry? Storage. Setting time.

Basic structure. Configuration and conformation. Viscosity. Glass transition. Time-temperature equivalence. Plasticizers and cross-linking.

First thoughts. Elasticity. Newtonian flow. The Maxwell body. The Kelvin-Voigt body. Viscoelasticity. Classification of flow behaviour. The compression set test. Fillers. Stokes’ law. Poiseuille’s law.

Polymerization. Heat-cured acrylic. Cold-cured resins. Inhibitors. Cracks and crazes. Modifications.

Resin restorative materials
Direct acrylic resin restorative materials. The effects of fillers. Filler loading. Resin chemistry. Light-cured materials. Oxygen inhibition.

Flexible impression materials
Basic requirements. Deformation. Effects of fillers. Polysulphide. Polyether. Silicones. Polysaccharides. Agar. Alginates. Water gain and loss. Stress set. Other accuracy issues. Mould seal

Composition and phase diagrams
Plotting composition. States and phases. The phase rule. Critical points.

Cements and liners
General principles. Zinc Oxide – Eugenol. Background chemistry. Cements as composite materials. Zinc phosphate. Zinc polycarboxylate. Ion-leachable glasses. Glass ionomer cement. Film thickness. Calcium hydroxide liners. Cavity varnish. MTA.

Wetting. Capillarity. Aspects of chemical bonding. The hydrogen bond. Dental adhesives. Enamel and dentine etching and bonding. Fluoride. Surfactants.

Metals I: structure
What is a metal? Freezing. Crystal structure. Grain structure. Slip. Dislocations.

Metals II: constitution
Segregation. Metallography. Eutectics. Phase diagram conventions and layout. The Cu-Sn System.

Basic considerations. Polarization. Cathode processes. Corrosion protection. Passive metals. Other factors. Deliberate corrosion.

Silver Amalgam
Basic setting reactions. Alloy powder manufacture. Cooling rate and constitution. Mixing proportions. Constitution of set amalgam. Dimensional changes. Mechanical properties. Porosity. Corrosion. Quality of work.

Amalgamation. Amalgam mixer analysis. Other capsule products. Alginate proportioning. Tubes. Other powder-liquid products. Theory. Spatulas

Chemistry. Properties. Flow. Burn out. Impression compound. Other applications.

Casting investments
Requirements. Chemistry of silica. Gypsum-bonded investments. Phosphate-bonded investments. Silica-bonded investments. Ring liner. Porosity.

Models and investments. Metal casting. Physics of casting. Dimensional considerations and defects. Flame.

Casting alloys
Gold alloys. Chromium alloys.

Cutting, abrasion and polishing
Background. Bonded abrasives. Cutting tools. Erosion. Electrolytic polishing. Roughness. Heating. Diamond.

Steel and cermet
Carbon steel. Stainless steel. Cermet.

Soldering and welding
Definitions and conditions. Fluxes. Solderd design and selection. Amalgamation.

Work and moment. Simple beams. The second moment of inertia. Deflections of loaded beams. The finger-spring analysed. Coils and braiding. Hand instruments.

Light and colour
The sensation of colour. The chromaticity diagram. Colour specification. Colour matching in practice. Physics of light. Chemistry of colour.

Structure. Firing reactions. Alumina strengthening. The firing process. Strengthening treatments. Metal – ceramics. Colouring. Boric oxide. Other approaches. Etching.

Atomic structure. X-ray generation. Lambert’s law. Absorption and scattering. Radiographic film density. Experimental attenuation coefficient. Screens. Image properties. Alternative imaging techniques. Digital images.

More polymers
Polyisoprene. Polysaccharides. Polypeptides. Polyesters.

More metals
Titanium. Nickel-titanium. Metal forming. Pure gold. Mirrors. Mercury. Beryllium. Other alloys. Silver.

More mechanical testing
Shear. Plastic-brittle transition. Bend strength.